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د پولينډ تاريخچه (۱۹۸۹ – ز کلونه)

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا


له ۱۹۴۵ څخه تر ۱۹۸۹ ز کال پورې د پولينډ تاريخچه د دويمې نړيوالې له پای ته رسېدلو څخه وروسته پر پولينډ باندې د کمونيست حکومت تپل شوې دوره رانغاړي. دا کالونه په داسې حال کې چې د ژوند په معيارونو کې د عمومي صنعتي کوونې، ښارې کوونې او زياتو پرمختګونه سره ښودل کېږي، د سټالين پلوۍ لومړنيو فشارونو، ټولنيزې ناارامۍ، سياسي نښتې او سختو اقتصادي ستونزو په واسطه بدرنګه يا ژوبل شول.

د دويمې نړيوالې جګړې پای ته نږدې د شوروي پر مخ تلونکي سور لښکر په ختيځ کې د پولينډي وسله والو ځواکونو تر څنګ له نيول شوي [اشغال شوي] پولينډ څخه د نازي المان ځواکونه واېستل. د ۱۹۴۵ز کال فبروري کې د Yalta ناستې د روغې جوړې له يوه يووالي څخه له جګړې نه وروسته تر ټاکنو پورې د پولينډ د يو لنډمهالي حکومت جوړښت تصويب کړ. د شوروي اتحاد مشر Joseph Stalin د ياد حکومت پلي کول په ښه ډول اداره کړل. په وارسا کې په عملي ډول د کمونيستانو تر واک لاندې د ملي يووالي يو لنډ مهاله حکومت دې ته په نه پاملرنې سره جوړ شو، چې د پولينډ حکومت د ۱۹۴۰ز کال راهيسې لندن ته تبعيد شوی و.

د ۱۹۴۵ ز کال جولای – اګسټ کې د Potsdam ناستې د پای پر مهال درې سترو متحدينو لويديځ لور ته د لويې پولينډي پولې اوښتل ومنل او د Oder_Neisse کرښې او Crzone Line تر منځ يې د دې هېواد سيمه تصويب کړه، چې پايله يې د پولينډي پولو راټولېدل او لکه د پخوانۍ Piast کورنۍ دورې له پولو سره يو شان کېدل شوه. په اور وژنه (عام وژنه) کې د پولينډي الاصل يهودي وګړو له تباهۍ، لويديځ کې د جرمنيانو د جګړې او ماتېدنې، ختيځ کې د اوکراينيانو بيا مېشت کېدنې او له ختیځو سرحدي ځمکو (Kresy) څخه د قطبونو له ماتېدنې او بيا مېشت کېدنې څخه وروسته، پولينډ په خپل تاريخ کې د لومړي ځل لپاره له څرګندو لږه کيو څخه پرته، په توکميز ډول يو متجانس [سره ورته] دولت شو. نوي حکومت خپل سياسي ځواک کلک کړ، په داسې حال کې چې د پولينډ د متحده کارکوونکو ګوند (PZPR) د Boleslaw Bierut تر مشرۍ لاندې پر هېواد باندې ټينګه اداره [کنترول] تر لاسه کړه، چې د شوروي د نفوذ سيمه کې به د يو خپلواک دولت په توګه پاتې شي. د جولای اساسي قانون (July Constitution) د ۱۹۵۲ ز کال د جولای پر ۲۲ مه باندې په رسمي ډول خپور شو او پولينډ په رسمي ډول د پولينډي خلکو جمهوريت (Polish People’s Republic: PRL) شو.

په ۱۹۵۳ ز کال کې د سټالين له مړينې څخه وروسته يوې سياسي «وېلې کېدنې» د Wladyslaw Gmulka په مشرۍ د پولينډي کمونيستانو يو څه زياتې ليبرالي ډلې ته د ځواک تر لاسه کولو اجازه ورکړه. د ۱۹۶۰ ز لسيزې په نيمايي کې پولينډ د زياتېدونکو اقتصادي او سياسي ستونزو ازمويل پيل کړل. يادې ستونزې په ۱۹۶۸ ز کال کې  پولينډي سياسي کړکېچ او ۱۹۷۰ ز کال کې پولينډي لاريون کوونکو [پېښو] کې هغه مهال تر ټولو لوړ ټکي ته ورسېدل، چې د يوه مصرف کوونکي [مستهلک] د بيې حالت د اعتصابونو يوې څپې ته لاره هواره کړه. حکومت له لويديځو امتياز ورکوونکو څخه د هر اړخېزه پورونو پر بنسټ یوه نوې اقتصادي خپرونه وړاندې کړه، چې د ژوند معيارونو او هيلو په لوړوالي کې يې اغېز وکړ، مګر د خپرونې موخه په نړيوال اقتصاد سره د پولينډ د اقتصاد مخ پر وده بشپړونه وه او د ۱۹۷۳ ز کال د تېلو له کړکېچ څخه وروسته ولړزېده. په ۱۹۷۶ ز کال کې د Edward Gierek حکومت يو ځل د بيو لوړولو ته اړ شو، چې د ۱۹۷۶ ز کال د جون لاريونونو لامل شو.

فشار، سمون ، اقتصادي او سياسي هڅې  د دې دوران د Pope John Paul II په توګه د Karol Wojtyle د ۱۹۷۸ زکال په ټاکنو سره د نويو ځانګړتياوو غوښتنه وکړه. د Wojtyla د تمې خلاف پورته کېدنې [ترفېع] د اقتدار خوښوونکو او د Nomenklatura د نظريې له مخې ادراه کېدونکي سوسياليست پلوي دولتي نظام د نه ګټورتوب پر وړاندې مخالفت، په ځانګړې ډول په ۱۹۷۹ ز کال کې له پولينډ څخه د Pope په لومړۍ ليدنې سره پياوړی کړ. د ۱۹۸۰ ز کال اګسټ په لومړي کې د اعتصابونو يوې نوې څپې په پايله کې د «يووالي» په نوم د سوداګرۍ خپلواکه اتحاديه رامنځته شوه، چې مشري يې Lech Walesa کوله. د مخالفت مخ پر وده پياوړتيا او فعاليت د Wojciech Jaruzelski حکومت اړ کړ، چې د ۱۹۸۱ ز کال په ډسمبر کې جنګي قانون اعلان کړي. که څه هم په شوروي اتحاد کې د ميخايل ګربچوف (Mikhail Gorbachev) په حکومتي سمونونو، د لويديځ له لوري زياتېدونکي او بې کفايته اقتصاد له امله نظام له خپلو سيالانو سره خبرو اترو کولو ته اړ و. د ۱۹۸۹ ز کال ګردي مېز خبرو (Round Table Talks) د ۱۹۸۹ز کال  ټاکنو کې د يووالي [د سوداګرۍ خپلواکه اتحاديه] ګډون ته لاره هواره کړه. د دې اتحاديې د نوماندانو سترې بريا په مرکزي او ختيځه اروپا کې له کمونيستي حکومت څخه د بدلونو لومړی پرله پسې والی راپورته کړ. Jaruzelski په ۱۹۹۰ ز کال کې هغه مهال له ولسمشرۍ څخه استعفا وکړه، چې د ولسمشريزې ټاکنې ترې نه Wales وګټلې.

د کمونيستي حکومت پولينډ رامنځته کېدل (۱۹۴۸ – ز کلونه)[سمول]

له دويمې نړيوالې جګړې څخه مخکې د پولينډ د نفوسو درېيمه برخه له توکميز لږه کيو څخه ترکيب شوې وه. پولينډ په ۱۹۳۹ ز کال کې نږدې ۳۵ ميليونه اوسېدونکي لرل، مګر په ۱۹۴۶ز کال کې يې نفوس د بېلابېلو پولو دننه له ۲۴ ميليونو تنو څخه لږ و. د پاتې نفوس له درې ميليونو څخه زيات يې توکميز لږه کي، لکه: جرمنيان، اوکراينيان او يهودان وو، چې ډېری دا لږه کي به په نږدې راتلونکي کې له پوليند څخه وتلی وی. پوليند د دويمې نړيوالې جګړې پر مهال د خپل نفوس له ۱۶ تر ۱۷ سلنې له لاسه ورکړ، چې سخت يې وځوراوه. اټکل شوې ده چې د ۱۹۳۹ او ۱۹۴۵ ز کلونو تر منځ د جګړې اړوند سببونو له امله تر ۶ ميليونو پورې پولينډي وګړي و وژل شول. په اټکل شوي شمېر کې د ټولې پورتنۍ وژنې د برخه په توګه ۳ ميليونه يهود الاصل پولينډي قربانيان شامل وو. په توکميز ډول د پولينډي قربانيانو شمېر ښايي ۲ ميليونه و. [۱]

په پولينډ کې تاريخي لږه کي په خورا څرګند ډول اغېزمن شول، په داسې حال کې چې د نظريو په مخکينيو موافقو کې د پولينډ منعکس شوی ګڼ توکميز توپير بس و، مګر له جګړې څخه وروسته په څو کلونو کې دود و. د پولينډ لوست پوړ [ټولګی] زيات وځورېد. د هېواد له جګړې څخه مخکې ګڼ شمېر سياسي او ټولنيز روښانفکران يا ووژل شول او يا تيت او پرک شول.

د بيارغونې د ستر کار په پلي کولو سره د متمرکز واک د غوښتلو په موخه، د نوي حکومت هڅې د هېواد [پولينډ] ملګرتيا وکړه، چې د نوي نظام لپاره د ټولنې د پام وړ غوره شوې برخې د نه باور او له جګړې څخه وروسته د پولينډ د پولو پر سر د نښتو له امله (چې د ۱۹۴۵ ز کال تر نيمايي پورې په ټينګ ډول رامنځته نه شوې) ياده هڅه لا پېچلې شوه. په هغه وخت کې د شوروي شته ځواکونه، د جرمني د هغو پخوانيو ختيځو سيمو په لوټلو کې بوخت شول، چې پولينډ ته سپارل کېدلې، ورڅخه يې ارزښتناک صنعتي توکي، جوړښتونه او کارخونې لوټلې او شوروي اتحاد ته يې استولې.

له شوروي سره د Cruzon Line په ختيځ کې د Kresy سيمو له نښلولو څخه وروسته نږدې دوه ميليونه قطبي وګړي له دې سيمو څخه د Oder-Neisse کرښې ختيځ کې لويديځ او شمالي سيمو ته لاړل، ولېږدول شول او يا وشړل شول. ذکر شوې سيمې د Potsdam تړون له مخې له جرمني څخه پوليند ته ورکړل شوې وې. نور په هغه څه [ځای] کې پاتې شول چې شوروي اتحاد شوی و او زيات خلک له ۱۹۵۶ ز کال څخه وروسته پولينډ ته لاړل. د پولينډ د مرکزي برخو د خلکو نورې استوګنې په هغه ځای کې د پولينډيانو شمېر په ۱۹۵۰ ز کال کې تر ۵ ميليونه پورې ورساوه، چې حکومت ورته د بيارغول شويو سيمو (Recovered Territories) نوم ورکړ. د پخواني جرمني له ۱۰ ميليونه څخه زيات وګړي په ۱۹۵۰ ز کال کې يا وتښتېدل او يا له جګړې څخه وروسته جرمني ته وشړل شول. نږدې ۴،۴ ميليونه وګړي د جګړې په وروستيو پړاوونو کې وتښتېدل او ۳،۵ ميليونه يې د ۱۹۴۵ او ۱۹۵۹ کاونو تر منځ د پولينډي چارواکو له لوري له مخې لرې [ووژل] شول. د جرمنيانو ايستنه [اخراج] په Potsdam ناسته کې د نهايي شويو متحدو پرېکړو پايله وه. [۲]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Robert A. Guisepi (2001). "World War Two Casualties. Killed, wounded, prisoners, and/or missing". World War Two. World History Project, USA. د اصلي آرشيف څخه پر ۰۷ مې ۲۰۱۵ باندې. لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۹ جنوري ۲۰۱۶. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  2. The Politics of Retribution in Postwar Warsaw: In the Honor Court of the Central Committee of. Polish Jews. Gabriel N. Finder in Warsaw. The Jewish Metropolis Essays in Honor of the 75th Birthday of Professor Antony Polonsky Series: IJS Studies in Judaica, Volume: 15, 2015 page 558

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