د "د افغانستان دموکراتیک جمهوریت" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
۱۰٬۱۴۴ تورى ورگډ شول ،  ۹ مياشتې مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
(د "د افغانستان دموکراتیک جمهوریت" تورو مخ جوړ شو)
نښلنونه: ليدنيز سمون د موبايل سمون د موبايل گورت سمون
 
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نښلنونه: د موبايل سمون د موبايل گورت سمون
د افغانستان دموکراتیک جمهوریت
{{Hatnote|This article is about the former state. For the Afghan state between 1973 and 1978, see [[Republic of Afghanistan]]. For the Afghan state between 2004 and 2021, see [[Islamic Republic of Afghanistan]]. For the current Afghan state, see [[Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan]].}}
{{see also|Soviet Empire}}
{{short description|Central Asian Republic (1978–1992)}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2019}}
{{Infobox country
| conventional_long_name = Democratic Republic of Afghanistan {{no bold|{{small|(1978–1987)}}<br />{{native name|ps|د افغانستان ډموکراتيک جمهوريت}}<br />{{native name|prs|جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان}}}}<hr/>Republic of Afghanistan {{no bold|{{small|(1987–1992)}}<br />{{native name|ps|د افغانستان جمهوريت}}<br />{{native name|prs|جمهوری افغانستان}}}}
| common_name = Afghanistan
| p1 = Republic of Afghanistan
| flag_p1 = Flag_of_Afghanistan_1974.svg
| s1 = Islamic State of Afghanistan
| flag_s1 = Flag of Afghanistan (1992).svg
| image_flag = Flag of Afghanistan (1987–1992).svg
| flag_type = [[Flag of Afghanistan|Flag]] (1987–1992)
| image_coat = Emblem of Afghanistan (1987-1992).svg
| symbol_type = [[Emblem of Afghanistan|Emblem]] (1987–1992)
| image_map = LocationAfghanistan (with Soviet borders).svg
| era = Cold War
| national_motto = {{native name|prs|کارگران جهان متحد شوید}}<br />"Kârgarân-e jahân mottahed šavid!"<br />("[[Workers of the world, unite!|Working men of all nations, unite!]]")
| national_anthem = {{transl|ur|ALA-LC|''[[Garam shah lā garam shah]]''}}<br/>{{lang|ps|{{Nastaliq|گرم شه, لا گرم شه}}}}<br/><center>({{lang-en|"Be ardent, be more ardent"}})<br />[[File:Former national anthem of Afghanistan, 1978-1992.ogg]]</center> (Pashto)
| capital = [[Kabul]]
| largest_city = capital
| official_languages = [[Pashto]]<br/>[[Dari]]
| government_type = [[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[Marxism-Leninism|Marxist-Leninist]] [[One-party state|one-party]] [[socialist republic]]<br />(1978–1987)<hr>[[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[Islamic socialism|Islamic-socialist]]<br />[[Dominant-party system|dominant-party]] [[republic]]<br />(1987–1992)
| demonym = [[Afghans|Afghan]]
| religion = [[State atheism]]{{Citation needed||date=April 2020}} (until 1980)<br/>[[State secularism]] (1980–1987)<br/>[[Islamic socialism]] (from 1987)
| title_leader = [[People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan#General Secretary, Politburo and Secretariat|General Secretary]]
| year_leader1 = 1978–1979
| leader1 = [[Nur Muhammad Taraki]] (first)
| year_leader2 = 1979
| leader2 = [[Hafizullah Amin]]
| year_leader3 = 1979–1986
| leader3 = [[Babrak Karmal]]
| year_leader4 = 1986–1992
| leader4 = [[Mohammad Najibullah]] (last)
| title_representative = [[President of Afghanistan|Head of State]]
| representative1 = [[Nur Muhammad Taraki]] (first)
| year_representative1 = 1978–1979
| representative2 = [[Hafizullah Amin]]
| year_representative2 = 1979
| representative3 = [[Babrak Karmal]]
| year_representative3 = 1979–1986
| representative4 = [[Haji Mohammad Chamkani]]
| year_representative4 = 1986–1987
| representative5 = [[Mohammad Najibullah]] (last)
| year_representative5 = 1987–1992
| title_deputy = [[Prime Minister of Afghanistan|Head of Government]]
| deputy1 = [[Nur Muhammad Taraki]] (first)
| year_deputy1 = 1978–1979
| deputy2 = [[Hafizullah Amin]]
| year_deputy2 = 1979
| deputy3 = [[Babrak Karmal]]
| year_deputy3 = 1979–1981
| deputy4 = [[Sultan Ali Keshtmand]]
| year_deputy4 = 1981–1988
| deputy5 = [[Mohammad Hasan Sharq]]
| year_deputy5 = 1988–1989
| deputy6 = [[Sultan Ali Keshtmand]]
| year_deputy6 = 1989–1990
| deputy7 = [[Fazal Haq Khaliqyar]] (last)
| year_deputy7 = 1990–1992
| legislature = [[Revolutionary Council (Afghanistan)|Revolutionary Council]]
| event_pre = [[Saur Revolution]]
| date_pre = 27–28 April 1978
| year_start = 1978
| event_start = Proclaimed
| date_start = 30 April<ref>{{cite book|author=Mark Urban|title=War in Afghanistan: Second Edition|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|date=1990|page=10|isbn=978-0-312-04255-4}}</ref>
| event1 = [[Soviet–Afghan War#Soviet intervention and coup|Soviet intervention]]
| date_event1 = 27 December 1979
| event2 = [[Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan|Soviet withdrawal]]
| date_event2 = 15 February 1989
| event_end = [[Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992)#Fall of Kabul|Fall of Kabul]]
| year_end = 1992
| date_end = 28 April
| currency = [[Afghan afghani|Afghani]] [[ISO 4217|(AFA)]]
| stat_year1 = 1992
| stat_area1 = 647500
| stat_pop1 = 13,811,900
| calling_code = 93
| HDI = 0.316
| HDI_year = 1992
}}
 
The '''Democratic Republic of Afghanistan'''{{refn|group=n|{{bulleted list|{{lang-prs|جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان}}, ''{{transl|prs|Jumhūri-ye Dimukrātī-ye Afġānistān}}''|{{lang-ps|دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت}}, ''{{transl|ps|Dǝ Afġānistān Dimukratī Jumhūriyat}}''}}}} ('''DRA'''), renamed the '''Republic of Afghanistan'''{{refn|group=n|{{bulleted list|{{lang-prs|جمهوری افغانستان}}; ''{{transl|prs|Jumhūrī-ye Afġānistān}}''|{{lang-ps|د افغانستان جمهوریت}} ''{{transl|ps|Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat}}''}}}} in 1987, existed from 1978 to 1992, during which time the [[socialist]] [[People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan]] (PDPA) ruled [[Afghanistan]].
 
The PDPA came to power through a military [[coup]] known as the [[Saur Revolution]], which ousted the government of [[Mohammad Daoud Khan]]. Daoud was succeeded by [[Nur Muhammad Taraki]] as head of state and government on 30 April 1978. Taraki and [[Hafizullah Amin]], the organiser of the Saur Revolution, introduced several contentious reforms during their rule such as land and marriage reform. Amin also added on reforms introduced by Daoud, such as universal education and equal rights for women.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Chapter-1-3.pdf|title=THE AFGHAN COMMUNISTS}}</ref> Soon after taking power a power struggle began between the [[Khalq faction]] led by Taraki and Amin and the [[Parcham faction]] led by [[Babrak Karmal]]. The Khalqists won and the Parchamites were purged from the party. The most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the [[Eastern Bloc]] and the [[Soviet Union]].
 
After the Khalq–Parcham struggle, a power struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Amin won the struggle, and Taraki was killed on his orders. His rule proved unpopular within his own country (due to the reforms mentioned earlier) and in the [[Soviet Union]]. The Soviet Union intervened, supported by the Afghan government, in December 1979, and on 27 December Amin was assassinated by Soviet military forces. Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the [[Soviet–Afghan War|Soviet war effort in Afghanistan]] against [[Afghan mujahideen]] insurgents. The war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, as well as millions of refugees who fled into [[Pakistan]] and [[Iran]]. The Fundamental Principles, a constitution, was introduced by the government in April 1980, and several non-PDPA members were allowed into government as part of the government's policy of broadening its support base. Karmal's policies failed to bring peace to the war-ravaged country, and in 1986 he was succeeded as PDPA General Secretary by [[Mohammad Najibullah]].
 
Najibullah pursued a policy of [[National Reconciliation]] with the opposition, a new Afghan constitution was introduced in 1987 and [[Afghan parliamentary election, 1988|democratic elections were held in 1988]] (which were boycotted by the mujahideen). After the [[Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan]] in 1988–1989, the government faced increasing resistance. 1990 proved to be a year of change in Afghan politics: a new constitution was introduced, which stated that Afghanistan was an [[Islamic republic]], and the PDPA was transformed into the Watan Party, which has survived to this day as the [[Democratic Watan Party of Afghanistan|Democratic Watan Party]]. On the military front, the government proved capable of defeating the armed opposition in open battle, as in the [[Afghan Civil War (1989–1992)#Battle of Jalalabad (1989)|Battle of Jalalabad]]. However, with an aggressive armed opposition, internal difficulties such as a [[1990 Afghan coup attempt|failed coup attempt]] by the Khalq faction in 1990 and the [[dissolution of the Soviet Union]] in 1991, the Najibullah government collapsed in April 1992.
 
Geographically, the DRA was bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; the [[Soviet Union]] (via the [[Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic|Turkmen]], [[Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic|Uzbek]], and [[Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic|Tajik SSRs]]) in the north; and [[China]] in the far northeast covering {{convert|652,000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} of its territory.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/sep/25/ghosts-of-afghanistan-jonathan-steele|title=Ghosts of Afghanistan: Hard Truths and Foreign Myths by Jonathan Steele - review|work=The Guardian|date=25 September 2011|access-date=18 March 2018}}</ref>
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