د "شملي کوریا" د بڼو تر مېنځ توپير

و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
۴۰٬۶۴۰ ټکی لري شوه ،  ۹ کاله مخکې
د سمون لنډيز پرته
و (r2.7.2) (روباټ زیاتول: xmf:ოორუე კორეა)
'''شمالي کوريا''' چې په رسمي توګه '''د کوریا ولسواک خلق ولسمشريزه''' په نوم یاديږي د کوريا د ټاپووزمه په شمالي برخه کې او د آسیا ختیځ کې پروت یو هيواد دی.
{{Infobox Country|
native_name = 조선민주주의인민공화국<br />朝鮮民主主義人民共和國<br />''Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk'' |
conventional_long_name = Democratic People's Republic of Korea |
common_name = سهېلي کوريا|
بېرغ = Flag_of_North_Korea.svg |
نښان = Coat of Arms of North Korea.png|20px |
ملي ترانه = ''Prosperous and Great Country (강성대국)'' |
image_map = LocationNorthKorea.png |
ملي ترانه = ''[[Aegukka]]'' |
(رسمي ژبه/ ژبې)|رسمي ژبه = [[Korean language|Korean]]|
پلازمېنه = [[Pyongyang|P'yŏngyang]] |latd=39|latm=2|latNS=N|longd=125|longm=45|longEW=E|
government_type =[[Totalitarian]] [[dictatorship]] / [[Communist state|Socialist State]]|
leader_title1 = [[Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea|Chairman of the NDC]] |
leader_title2 = [[Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly|President of the SPA]] |
leader_title3 = [[Premier of North Korea|Premier]] |
leader_name1 = [[Kim Jong-il]]<sup>1</sup> |
leader_name2 = [[Kim Yong-nam]]<sup>2</sup> |
leader_name3 = [[Pak Pong-ju]] |
largest_city = [[Pyongyang|P'yŏngyang]] |
مساحت = 120,540 |
areami²= 46,528 <!-- Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]] -->|
area_rank = 98th|
area_magnitude = 1 E12|
percent_water = 4.87% |
population_estimate = 23,113,019<sup>3</sup> |
population_estimate_year = 2006 |
population_estimate_rank = 48th |
population_census = N/A |
population_census_year = |
population_density = 190 |
population_densitymi² =492 <!-- Do not remove per [[WP:MOSNUM]] --> |
population_density_rank = 55th |
GDP_PPP_year = 2005 |
GDP_PPP = $40 billion|
GDP_PPP_rank = 85th |
GDP_PPP_per_capita = $1,800|
GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 149th |
HDI_year = 2003 |
HDI = NA |
HDI_rank = unranked |
HDI_category = <font color=gray>NA</font> |
sovereignty_type = [[Division of Korea#In the North|Establishment]] |
established_event1 = Liberation |
established_event2 = Republic |
established_date1 = [[August 15]], [[1945]] |
established_date2 = [[September 9]], [[1948]] |
پېسه = [[North Korean won|Won]] (₩) |
currency_code = KPW |
time_zone = |
utc_offset = +9 |
DST_note = Does not observe DST |
time_zone_DST = |
utc_offset_DST = |
cctld = none, [[.kp]] reserved |
calling_code = 850 |
footnotes=<sup>1</sup>[[Kim Jong-il]] is the nation's most powerful figure; his official title is [[Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea]], a position which he has held unopposed for 12 years<br /><sup>2</sup>[[Kim Yong-nam]] is the "[[head of state]] for foreign affairs"; [[Kim Il-sung]] (deceased) officially holds the title of "Eternal [[President]] of the Republic"<br /><sup>3</sup>Source: CIA World Factbook [http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/kn.html]. Korea does not disclose figures.|
}}
 
'''سهېلي کوريا''', officially the '''Democratic People's Republic of Korea''', is an [[East Asia]]n [[state]] occupying the northern half of the [[Korean Peninsula]]. Its government is a [[communism|communist]]-led [[single-party state]].
 
Its northern border is predominantly shared with the [[People's Republic of China]]. The [[Russian Federation]] shares an 18.3 [[kilometre]] (11.4 [[mile|mi]]) border along the [[Tumen River]] in the far northeast corner of the country. To the south, it is bordered by [[South Korea|Republic of Korea]], with which it formed a single territorial unit known as [[Korea]] until 1945.
 
== Name ==
{{main|Names of Korea}}
North Koreans call their country ''Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk'' ([[Hangul|조선민주주의인민화국]]) or, more commonly, ''Pukchosŏn'' (북조선, "North Chosŏn"). ''Chosŏn'' is a reference to [[Gojoseon]]. ''Minjujuŭi'' means democracy, ''Inmin'' for people and ''Konghwaguk'' for republic.
 
== تاريخ ==
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا تاريخ}}
 
The [[Korea under Japanese rule|Japanese rule of Korea]] ceased with the end of [[World War II]] in 1945. Korea was occupied by the [[Soviet Union]] north of the 38th Parallel and by the [[United States]] south of the [[38th parallel north|38th parallel]], but the Soviets and Americans were unable to agree on the implementation of Joint Trusteeship over Korea. This led in 1948 to the establishment of separate governments in the north and south, each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea.
 
Growing tensions between the governments in the north and south eventually led to the [[Korean War]], when on [[June 25]], [[1950]] the DPRK [[Korean People's Army]] crossed the 38th Parallel, claiming that the South had crossed it first, and attacked. The war continued until [[July 27]], [[1953]], when the [[United Nations]] Command, Korean People's Army, and the [[Chinese People's Volunteers]] signed the Korean War Armistice Agreement. The [[Korean Demilitarized Zone|DMZ]] has separated the DPRK and South Korea since.
 
[[دوتنه:DRPK_Kim_Il_Sung_and_Kim_Jong_Il.jpg|left|thumb|250px|[[Kim Il-sung]] (right) with son [[Kim Jong-il]]]]
North Korea was led by [[Kim Il Sung]] from 1948 until his death on [[July 8]], [[1994]], delegating most domestic matters to his son [[Kim Jong-il]] toward the end of his life. Three years after his father's death, on [[October 8]], [[1997]], Kim Jong-il was named [[General Secretary]] of the Korean Workers' Party.[http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eap/726.htm][http://world.kbs.co.kr/english/event/nkorea_nuclear/general_02d.htm] In 1998, the legislature reconfirmed him as [[Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea|Chairman of the National Defence Commission]] and declared that position as the "highest office of state."{{fact}} International relations generally improved, and there was a historic North-South summit between the two Koreas in June 2000. However, tensions with the [[United States]] have increased recently as North Korea resumed the development of a [[north korea and weapons of mass destruction|nuclear weapons program]] firing [[Taepodong-1]] missiles in 1998 over Japan, and, in the early morning hours (local time) on [[July 5]], [[2006]], test launched 6 missiles into the [[Sea of Japan]], including a long-range [[Taepodong-2]] missile, possibly capable of reaching Alaska or Hawaii. Despite international protests, on July 6th they launched a 7th missile of either short or mid range.{{fact}} The UN called an emergency meeting to consider what response will be called for.
 
During [[Kim Jong-il]]'s rule in the mid-to-late 1990s, the country's economy declined significantly, and food shortages developed in many areas. According to aid groups, millions of people in rural areas starved to death due to [[famine]], exacerbated by a collapse in the food distribution system [http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engasa240032004]. Large numbers of North Koreans illegally entered the People's Republic of China in search of food. [[Hwang Jang-yop]], International Secretary of the Korean Workers' Party, defected to South Korea in 1997.
 
:''See also: [[د کوريا تاريخ]], [[Division of Korea]]''
 
== سياست ==
{{morepolitics|country=سهېلي کوريا}}
=== حکومت ===
<!--Please add new information into relevant articles of the series-->
{{unreferenced|section}}
[[دوتنه:Kimjongil-wave.jpg|thumb|220px|right|[[Kim Jong-il]], "Dear" leader of the DPRK]]
[[دوتنه:Juche Tower.jpg|thumb|210px|Juche Tower, Pyongyang]]
{{د سهېلي کوريا سياست}}
The DPRK is one of the world's few [[socialist states]]. The government is dominated by the [[Workers' Party of Korea|Korean Workers' Party (KWP)]], to which 80 percent of government officials belong. The KWP's ideology is called [[Juche]] (self-reliance). The [[KWP]] replaced mentions of [[Marxism-Leninism]] in the DPRK constitution with Juche in 1977. [[Communism|Communist]] critics of the KWP deny that it is a Marxist-Leninist state. Minor [[Political parties in North Korea|political parties]] exist, but they are subordinated to the KWP and do not oppose its rule. The exact power structure of the country is debated by outside observers.
 
Nominally, the Premier is the head of government, but real power lies with [[Kim Jong-il]], head of the KWP and the military. Kim holds several official titles, the most important being [[General Secretary]] of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the National Defense Commission, and Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army. Within the country he is commonly known by the title of "Dear Leader", part of his [[cult of personality|personality cult]]. Similarly, his late father [[Kim Il-sung]] held the title of "Great Leader."
 
The [[constitution of North Korea|1998 constitution]] states that the late [[Kim Il-sung]] is "Eternal President of the Republic," and the post of president was abolished after his death. The constitution gives many of the functions normally accorded to a [[head of state]] to the [[Supreme People's Assembly Presidium]], whose president "represents the State" and receives credentials from foreign ambassadors. The government of the republic is led by the Prime Minister and, in theory, a super [[cabinet]] called the Central People's Committee (CPC), the government's top policymaking body. The CPC is headed by the President, who also nominates the other committee members. The [[CPC]] makes policy decisions and supervises the Cabinet, or State Administration Council (SAC). [[SAC]] is headed by a Premier and is the dominant administrative and [[executive (government)|executive]] agency.
 
The [[parliament]], the Supreme People's Assembly (''Choego Inmin Hoeui''), is officially the highest organ of state power. Its 687 members are elected every five years by popular vote. The People's Assembly usually holds only two annual meetings, each lasting a few days; it typically ratifies decisions made by the ruling KWP (see [[rubberstamp (politics)|rubber stamp]]). A standing committee elected by the Assembly performs [[legislative]] functions when the Assembly is not in session.
 
''See also: [[د سهېلي کوريا بهرنۍ اړيکې]], [[د سهېلي کوريا پوځ]], [[North Korea and weapons of mass destruction]]''
 
== بهرنۍ اړيکې او پوځ ==
{{mainarticles|[[د سهېلي کوريا پوځ]] او [[د سهېلي کوريا بهرنۍ اړيکې]]}}
=== پوځ ===
According to Western estimates, the DPRK has the fifth-largest [[military]] in the world, with the largest percentage of civilians enlisted (49.03 active troops per thousand citizens). The North has an estimated 1.08 million armed personnel, compared to about 686,000 [[South Korea]]n troops (and 3.5 million paramilitary forces) plus 17,000 US troops in South Korea. Military spending is estimated at 20%-25% of [[GNP]], which would mean that the DPRK spends the largest proportion of its GNP on its military in the world. The North has perhaps the world's second-largest special operations force (55,000), designed for insertion behind enemy lines in wartime. While the North has a relatively impressive fleet of [[submarine]]s, its surface fleet has a very limited capability. Its air force has twice the number of aircraft as the South, but except for a few advanced fighters (about 20 MiG-29s), the North's air force is obsolete.
 
=== بهرنۍ اړيکې ===
[[دوتنه:Kim Jong Il and Madeleine Albright.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Kim Jong-il with [[U.S. Secretary of State]] [[Madeleine Albright]] in 2000]]
The foreign relations of the DPRK are often regarded as tense and unpredictable in certain standards and with some countries. Since the end of the [[Korean War]] in 1953, the DPRK government has largely been uncooperative with other countries, especially with the [[United States]], [[Japan]] and to a certain degree with the [[South Korea|Republic of Korea]], becoming one of the world's most tightly controlled societies. Technically still in a state of war with [[South Korea]], the DPRK has maintained close relations with the [[People's Republic of China]] and often tense ones with other nations. It has supplied and sold [[weapon]]s to [[Iran]] and [[Pakistan]].
 
The [[fall of communism]] in [[eastern Europe]] in 1989 and the disintegration of the [[Soviet Union]] in 1991 resulted in a significant drop in communist aid to the DPRK. Despite these changes and its past reliance on this military and economic assistance, the DPRK proclaims a militantly independent stance in its foreign policy in accordance with its official ideology of juche, or self-reliance.
 
The DPRK maintains membership in a variety of multilateral organizations. It became a member of the UN in September 1991. The DPRK also belongs to the [[Food and Agriculture Organization]]; the [[International Civil Aviation Organization]]; the [[International Postal Union]]; the [[UN Conference on Trade and Development]]; the [[International Telecommunication Union|ITU]]; the [[UN Development Programme]]; the [[UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization]]; the [[World Health Organization]]; the [[World Intellectual Property Organization]]; the [[World Meteorological Organization]]; the [[International Maritime Organization]]; the [[International Committee of the Red Cross]]; and the [[Nonaligned Movement]].
 
The DPRK was named as a member of both the "[[axis of evil]]" and the "[[outposts of tyranny]]," lists created by the United States naming states it felt threatened world peace and human rights. It remains one of the few nations to not have diplomatic relations with the U.S.
 
[[وېشنيزه:شمالي کوريا ]]
The DPRK declared on [[February 10]], [[2005]] that it has nuclear weapons, bringing widespread expressions of dismay and near-universal calls for the North to return to the six-party negotiations aimed at curbing its nuclear program. On [[May 14]], South Korea announced that at the north's request to the [[Ministry of Unification]], the two countries would resume after almost a year on [[May 16]], in the border city of [[Kaesong]].
 
The DPRK is one of the few countries in which the giving of presents still plays a significant role in [[diplomatic protocol]], as it once did with [[monarch]]s and [[chieftain]]s. The [[Korean Central News Agency]] regularly reports that Kim Jong-il has received a [[nosegay|floral basket]] or gift from a foreign leader or organization.[http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2004/200407/news07/08.htm] The announcements never mention what sort of gift, but Kim is known to have a large collection of cultural souvenirs from leaders all over the world. During a [[2000]] visit to Pyongyang, US Secretary of State [[Madeleine Albright]] gave Kim a [[basketball]] signed by [[Michael Jordan]], as Kim takes an interest in [[National Basketball Association|NBA]] basketball.
 
==== Missiles and nuclear weapons program ====
{{mainarticle|North Korean nuclear weapons program}}
The DPRK has stated that it has produced [[nuclear weapon]]s and according to many [[intelligence]] and [[military]] officials it has produced, or has the capability to produce, at least six or seven [[nuclear weapon]]s. It also has certain quantity of [[Nodong]] 1, 2, [[SCUD]], and the bigger [[Taepodong]] 1, 2 missiles, and has reportedly test fired each of them. It has said that it has the "[[sovereign]] right" to test its missiles and pursue its weapons program.
 
=== Korean reunification ===
{{mainarticle|Korean reunification}}
{{sectstub}}
 
=== Six-party talks ===
{{mainarticle|Six-party talks}}
{{sectstub}}
 
== جغرافيه ==
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا جغرافيه}}
The DPRK is on the northern portion of the [[Korean Peninsula]] that extends 1,100 kilometres (685&nbsp;[[mile|mi]]) from the [[Asia]]n mainland.{{fact}} The DPRK shares its borders with three nations and two seas. To the west it borders the [[Yellow Sea]] and the [[Korea Bay]] and to the east it borders the [[Sea of Japan]] (East Sea of Korea). The DPRK borders [[سوېلي کوريا]], [[چين]], and [[روسيه]]. The highest point in Korea is the [[Paektu-san]] at 2,744 metres (9,003&nbsp;[[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) and major rivers include the [[Tumen River|Tumen]] and the [[Yalu River|Yalu]].{{fact}}
 
The DPRK occupies the northern portion of a mountainous peninsula projecting southeast from China, between the [[Sea of Japan]] (East Sea of Korea) and the Yellow Sea. Japan lies east of the peninsula across the Sea of Japan. The DPRK shares borders with the PRC along the Yalu River, and with the PRC and the [[Russian Federation]] along the [[Tumen River]].
 
The local [[climate]] is relatively [[temperate climate|temperate]], with [[precipitation (meteorology)|precipitation]] heavier in summer during a short rainy season called ''jangma'', and winters that can be bitterly cold on occasion.{{fact}} The DPRK's capital and largest city is [[Pyongyang|P'yŏngyang]]; other major cities include [[Kaesong|Kaesŏng]] in the south, [[Sinuiju|Sinŭiju]] in the northwest, [[Wonsan|Wŏnsan]] and [[Hamhung|Hamhŭng]] in the east and [[Chongjin|Ch'ŏngjin]] in the northeast.
 
''See also: [[Korean Peninsula]]''
 
== اقتصاد ==
{{Cleanup-date|July 2006}}
{{npov}}
 
[[دوتنه:KwangbokStreet.jpg|thumb|250px|Kwangbok Street in Pyongyang.]]
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا اقتصاد}}
The DPRK's [[economics|economy]] has been relatively stagnant since the 1970s. The government refuses to release economic data, limiting the amount of reliable information available. Publicly owned industry produces nearly all manufactured goods. The government continues to focus on heavy military industry. As of 2005, the government is estimated to have spent around 25% of the nation's [[GDP]] on the military (compared with 2.5% for neighboring South Korea).[http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcnorthkorea.htm]
 
The 1990s saw a series of natural disasters, political mismanagement, and corruption scandals. This, along with the collapse of the Soviet bloc, has caused significant economic disruption. The [[agriculture|agricultural]] outlook is poor, and some food products are deliberately diverted away from citizens and into the military. The combined effects of a reclusive state, serious [[fertilizer]] shortages, and structural constraints — such as little [[arable land]] and a short growing season — have resulted in a shortfall of staple [[cereal|grain]] output of more than 1 million tons from what the country needs to meet internationally-accepted minimum requirements. Recent evidence suggests serious food shortages.[http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/content/2005/s1479934.htm]
 
The DPRK has previously received international food and fuel aid from China, South Korea, and the United States in exchange for promises not to develop nuclear weapons. In June 2005, the U.S. announced that it would give 50,000 metric tons of food aid to the DPRK. {{fact}}The United States gave North Korea 50,000 tons in 2004 and 100,000 tons in 2003.{{fact}} On [[19 September]] [[2005]], the DPRK was promised food and fuel aid (among other things) from South Korea, the U.S.A., Japan, Russia, and the PRC in exchange for abandoning its nuclear weapons program and rejoining the [[Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty]].
[[دوتنه:MetroPyongyang.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Pyongyang subway]]
In July 2002, the DPRK started experimenting with capitalism in the [[Kaesong Industrial Region|Kaesŏng Industrial Region]].{{fact}} A small number of other areas have been designated as [[Special cities of Korea#North Korea|Special Administrative Regions]], including [[Sinuiju Special Administrative Region|Sinŭiju]] along the China-North Korea border. [[Mainland China]] and [[South Korea]] are the biggest trade partners of the DPRK, with trade with China increasing 38% to $1.02 billion in 2003, and trade with South Korea increasing 12% to $724 million in 2003.{{fact}} It is reported that the number of mobile phones in [[Pyongyang|P'yŏngyang]] rose from only 3,000 in 2002 to approximately 20,000 during 2004.{{fact}} As of June 2004, however, mobile phones became forbidden again. A small amount of capitalistic elements are gradually spreading from the trial area, including a number of advertising billboards along certain highways. Recent visitors have reported that the number of open-air farmers' markets has increased in [[Kaesong]], [[P'yŏngyang]], as well as along the PRC-TDPRK border, bypassing the food rationing system.
 
There have been few economic improvements since 1999. According to the [[Ministry of Unification]] of South Korea, the GDP grew by 6.2% in 1999, but only 1.3% in 2000, 3.2 % in 2001, 1.2% in 2002 and 1.8 % in 2003.{{fact}} Similar figures have been projected for 2004 and 2005.
 
In a 2003 event dubbed the "[[Pong Su incident]]", a DPRK cargo ship attempting to smuggle heroin into Australia was seized by Australian officials, strengthening Australian and United States suspicions that Pyongyang engages in international drug smuggling to support its failing economy. The DPRK government denied any involvement; in 2006 the cargo ship "Pong Su" was destroyed by a [[Royal Australian Air Force]] fighter jet during a practice exercise. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4837484.stm]
 
''See also: [[List of North Korean companies]], [[Communications in North Korea]], [[Transportation in North Korea]]''
 
== Demographics ==
{{main|Demographics of North Korea}}
The DPRK's estimated population of 23,000,000 is one of the most ethnically and linguistically homogenous in the world, with small numbers of [[China|Chinese]], [[Japanese people|Japanese]], [[Vietnamese people|Vietnamese]] and [[Eastern European]] minorities.
 
=== مذهب ===
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا مذهب}}
Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il are revered in many aspects of public life in the DPRK, often with proclamations containing quasi-religious overtones. Religious activities of other kinds are heavily suppressed by the officially [[atheism|atheist]] state, especially [[Protestantism]], which is seen as closely connected to the U.S.A.
 
The DPRK shares with South Korea a [[Korean Buddhism|Buddhist]] and [[Korean Confucianism|Confucianist]] heritage and recent history of [[Christianity in Korea|Christian]] and [[Chondogyo]] ("Heavenly Way") movements. Pyongyang was the centre of Christian activity in Korea before the Korean War. Today two state-sanctioned churches exist, which [[religious freedom]] advocates allege are mere show-cases for foreigners. [http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/0434A_ReligionI.html] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/4431321.stm]. It is usually estimated that there are about 4,000 [[Catholics]] in the DPRK, and about 9,000 [[Protestants]], of a population of over 22,000,000, and those that do practice Christianity are severely persecuted.
 
According to a ranking published by the organization [[Open Doors]], the DPRK is currently the country with the most severe persecution of Christians worldwide [http://sb.od.org/index.php?supp_page=wwl_top_ten&supp_lang=en].
 
=== ژبې ===
The DPRK shares the [[Korean language]] with South Korea. There are dialect differences within both parts of Korea, but the border between North and South does not represent a major linguistic boundary. Small differences have arisen, primarily in the words used for recent innovations.
 
The most notable linguistic difference between the two Koreas is in the written language, with the elimination of Chinese characters from normal use in the DPRK. In contrast, in South Korea Chinese characters are still in use to some extent, though in many contexts, such as newspapers, few are used.
 
The official [[romanisation]] is also different. The DPRK continues to use the [[McCune-Reischauer]] romanisation of Korean, in contrast to the South's [[Revised Romanization of Korean|revised]] version.
 
Another linguistic difference lies in the use of English. South Koreans have integrated many words from English into their vernacular while the North Koreans have not.
 
== کلتور/فرهنگ ==
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا کلتور/فرهنگ}}
There is a vast [[personality cult]] around Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il, and much of the DPRK's literature, popular, music, theatre, and film glorify the two men.
 
In July 2004, the [[Complex of Koguryo Tombs]] was the first site in the DPRK to be included into the [[UNESCO]] list of [[World Heritage Sites]].
 
A popular event in the DPRK is the [[Mass Games]]. The most recent and largest Mass Games was called "[[Arirang Festival|Arirang]]". It was performed six nights a week for two months, and involved over 100,000 performers. The Mass Games involve performances of [[dance]], [[gymnastic]], and choreographic routines which celebrate the history of North Korea and the Workers’ Party Revolution. The Mass Games are held in Pyongyang at various venues (varying according to the scale of the Games in a particular year) including the May Day Grand Theatre.
 
''See also: [[د کوريا کلتور/فرهنگ]], [[Korean cuisine]], [[Music of Korea]], [[د سهېلي کوريا رخصتيانې]], [[د سهېلي کوريا زده کړې]]''
 
=== Tourism ===
{{unreferenced|section}}
In principle, any person is allowed to travel to the DPRK, and among those who actually go through the complex application process, almost no one is refused entry. Visitors are not, however, allowed to travel outside designated tour areas without their Korean guides.
 
Tourists holding passports from the [[United States]] are typically not granted visas, although exceptions have been made in 1995, 2002, and 2005. The DPRK has informed tour operators that they will also grant visas to United States passport holders for 2006. Citizens of [[South Korea]] require special government permission from both governments to enter North Korea. In 2002, the area around [[Kumgangsan|Mount Kŭmgang]], a scenic mountain close to the South Korea border, has been designated as a special tourist destination ([[Kumgangsan Tourist Region|Kŭmgangsan Tourist Region]], commonly known as "the Diamond Mountains" in English), where South Korean citizens do not need special permissions. Tours run by private companies bring thousands of South Koreans to Mount Kŭmgang every year.
 
In July 2005 the South Korean company [[Hyundai Group]] came to an agreement with the DPRK government to open up more areas to tourism, including [[Mount Paektu]] and [[Kaesong]].
 
== جغرافيه ==
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا جغرافيه}}
[[دوتنه:Korea north map.png|thumb|250px|د سهېلي کوريا نخشه]]
 
As of 2005, the DPRK consists of two Directly-Governed Cities (''Chikhalsi''; 직할시; 直轄市), three special regions with various designations, and nine Provinces (See [[provinces of Korea]]). (Names are romanized according to the [[McCune-Reischauer]] system as officially used in North Korea; the editor was also guided by the spellings used on the 2003 [[National Geographic]] map of Korea).
 
For historical information, see [[د کوريا ولايتونه]] او [[د کوريا ځانګړی ښار]].
 
=== Directly-governed cities ===
* [[Pyongyang|P'yŏngyang]] Directly-governed City (''P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi''; 평양 직할시; 平壤直轄市)
* [[Rason|Rasŏn (Rajin-Sŏnbong)]] ''Chikhalsi'' (라선 (라진-선봉) 직할시; 羅先 (羅津-先鋒) 直轄市)
 
=== Special regions ===
* [[Kaesong Industrial Region|Kaesŏng Industrial Region]] (''Kaesŏng Kong-ŏp Chigu;'' 개성 공업 지구; 開城工業地區)
* [[Kumgangsan Tourist Region|Kŭmgangsan Tourist Region]] (''Kŭmgangsan Kwangwang Chigu;'' 금강산 관광 지구; 金剛山觀光地區)
* [[Sinuiju Special Administrative Region|Sinŭiju Special Administrative Region]] (''Sinŭiju T'ŭkpyŏl Haengjŏnggu''; 신의주 특별 행정구; 新義州特別行政區)
 
=== ولايتونه ===
* [[Chagang]] Province (''Chagang-do;'' 자강도; 慈江道)
* [[North Hamgyong|North Hamgyŏng]] Province (''Hamgyŏng-pukto;'' 함경 북도; 咸鏡北道)
* [[South Hamgyong|South Hamgyŏng]] Province (''Hamgyŏng-namdo;'' 함경 남도; 咸鏡南道)
* [[North Hwanghae]] Province (''Hwanghae-pukto;'' 황해 북도; 黃海北道)
* [[South Hwanghae]] Province (''Hwanghae-namdo;'' 황해 남도; 黃海南道)
* [[Kangwon|Kangwŏn]] Province (''Kangwŏndo;'' 강원도; 江原道)
* [[North Pyongan|North P'yŏngan]] Province (''P'yŏngan-pukto;'' 평안 북도; 平安北道)
* [[South Pyongan|South P'yŏngan]] Province (''P'yŏngan-namdo;'' 평안 남도; 平安南道)
* [[Ryanggang]] Province (''Ryanggang-do;'' 량강도; 兩江道--sometimes also spelled as 'Yanggang' in English)
 
=== Major cities ===
* [[Sinuiju]]
* [[Kaesong]]
* [[Nampho]]
* [[Chongjin]]
* [[Wonsan]]
* [[Hamhung - Hamnam]]
* [[Haeju]]
* [[Kanggye]]
* [[Hyesan]]
''See also [[د سهېلي کوريا ښارونه]]''
 
== Issues ==
=== انساني حقوق ===
{{main|د سهېلي کوريا انساني حقوق}}
[[Amnesty International]] and other human rights organizations accuse the DPRK of having one of the worst human rights records of any nation, severely restricting most freedoms, including [[freedom of speech]] and [[freedom of movement]], both inside the country and abroad.
 
Refugees have testified to the existence of [[detention camp]]s with an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 inmates, and have reported [[torture]], starvation, rape, murder and [[forced labour]] [http://hrnk.org/hiddengulag/toc.html]. Japanese television aired what it said was footage of a prison camp [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4397847/]. In some of the camps, former inmates say the annual mortality rate approaches 25% [http://msnbc.msn.com/id/3071466]. A former prison guard and army intelligence officer said that in one camp, chemical weapons were tested on prisoners in a gas chamber [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/this_world/3436701.stm]. According to a former prisoner, pregnant women inside the camps are often forced to have abortions or the newborn child is killed [http://ncafe.com/northkorea/SunOkLeeTestimony_w_llus.pdf]. None of these claims can be verified, as North Korea denies the existence of the camps and refuses entry to independent human rights observers. However, a recent [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1186569,00.html TIME magazine article] documents a young woman's forced abortion in a prison camp and subsequent escape from North Korea.
 
=== Famine ===
<!--need more info on this image. how do we know it's typical? [[Image:NK_(24).jpg|thumb|250px|Typical North Korean home. It is likely that this picture was taken illegaly as government officials would not allow such negative depictions of life in the country.]]
// looks legit^^-->
During the 1990s, famine killed between 600,000 and 3.5 million people in the DPRK,[http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9808/19/nkorea.famine] [http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/11.13/13-koreaeat.html]. By 1999, [[foreign aid]] reduced the number famine deaths, but [[North Korea and weapons of mass destruction|North Korea's continuing nuclear program]] led to a decline in international food and development aid.
In the spring of 2005, the World Food Program reported that famine conditions were in imminent danger of returning to the DPRK, and the government was reported to have mobilized millions of city-dwellers to help rice farmers [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20810F6345D0C728CDDAF0894DD404482] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4072280.stm]. Contrastingly, the DPRK government stated that the 2005 cereal harvest reached 4.6 million tonnes (a 10% increase in comparison with 2004), the best harvest for the past ten years.
 
== دا هم وګورۍ ==
* [[North Korean missile test, 2006|North Korean Missile Test (2006)]]
* [[List of Korea-related topics]]
* [[North Korea Times]]
* [[List of Koreans]]
* [[Korean reunification]]
* [[Korean nationalism]]
* [[Chongryon]]
* [[Korean friendship association]]
* [[Kimjongilia]] (national flower)
* [[سوېلي کوريا]]
 
== سرچينې ==
# {{note|1}} [[Kang Chol-Hwan]], ''[[The Aquariums of Pyongyang]]'' (New York: Basic Books, 2001) 146.
 
== Further reading ==
* Gordon Cucullu, ''Separated At Birth: How North Korea Became The Evil Twin'', Globe Pequot Press (2004), hardcover, 307 pages, ISBN 1-59228-591-0
* Bruce Cumings, <cite>Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History</cite>, [[W.W. Norton & Company]], 1998, paperback, 527 pages, ISBN 0-393-31681-5
* Bruce Cumings, <cite>Origins of the Korean War: Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes</cite>, [[Princeton University Press]], 1981, paperback, ISBN 0-691-10113-2
* Nick Eberstadt, aka Nicholas Eberstadt, ''The End of North Korea'', American Enterprise Institute Press (1999), hardcover, 191 pages, ISBN 0-8447-4087-X
* John Feffer, <cite>North Korea South Korea: U.S. Policy at a Time of Crisis</cite>, [[Seven Stories Press]], 2003, paperback, 197 pages, ISBN 1-58322-603-6
* {{cite book | author=Kang, Chol-Hwan | title=[[The Aquariums of Pyongyang]] | publisher=Basic Books, 2001 | year=2001 | id=ISBN 0-465-01102-0}}
* Mitchell B. Lerner, <cite>The Pueblo Incident: A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy</cite>, University Press of Kansas, 2002, hardcover, 408 pages, ISBN 0-7006-1171-1
* Bradley Martin, ''Under The Loving Care Of The Fatherly Leader: North Korea And The Kim Dynasty'', St. Martins (October, 2004), hardcover, 868 pages, ISBN 0-312-32221-6
* Oberdorfer, Don. <cite>The two Koreas : a contemporary history</cite>. Addison-Wesley, 1997, 472 pages, ISBN 0-201-40927-5
* Kong Dan Oh, and Ralph C. Hassig, ''North Korea Through the Looking Glass'', The Brookings Institution, 2000, paperback, 216 pages, ISBN 0-8157-6435-9
* Quinones, Dr. C. Kenneth, and Joseph Tragert, ''The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding North Korea'', Alpha Books, 2004, paperback, 448 pages, ISBN 1-59257-169-7
* Sigal, Leon V., ''Disarming Strangers: Nuclear Diplomacy with North Korea'', [[Princeton University Press]], 199, 336 pages, ISBN 0-691-05797-4
* Vladimir, ''Cyber North Korea'', Byakuya Shobo, 2003, paperback, 223 pages, ISBN 4-89367-881-7
* Norbert Vollertsen, <cite>Inside North Korea: Diary of a Mad Place</cite>, Encounter Books, 2003, hardcover, 280 pages, ISBN 1-893554-87-2
* Michael Harrold, <cite>Comrades and Strangers: Behind the Closed Doors of North Korea</cite>, Wiley Publishing, 2004, paperback, 432 pages, ISBN 0-470-86976-3
 
== باندنۍ تړنې ==
{{sisterlinks|سهېلي کوريا}}
* {{wikitravel|سهېلي کوريا}}
* [http://www.house.gov/international_relations/nkhra.htm The North Korean Human Rights Act: Documents and Background Materials]
* [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=19 "Think Again: The Korea Crisis"] from Foreign Policy Magazine
* [http://www.opendemocracy.net/globalization-institutions_government/north_korea_2686.jsp A gulag with nukes: inside North Korea] by Jasper Becker
* [http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/la-fg-extreme11nov11,0,899396.story?track=hpmostemailedlink Bizarre Trip of a Lifetime] from the [[Los Angeles Times]], about a group of American "extreme travelers" who visited North Korea in the fall of 2005
* [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/others/pongyang.html Pyongyang Watch], an archive of Aidan Foster-Carter's coverage of North Korea for the Asia Times.
* [http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=jf06hayes Peter Hayes, David von Hippel, Jungmin Kang, Tatsujiro Suzuki, Richard Tanter, and Scott Bruce, "Grid-locked," ''Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists'', January/February 2006.] On North Korea's energy crisis.
* [http://www.aidanfc.net/a_year_in_pyongyang_p.html "A Year in Pyongyang"], by Andrew Holloway, 1988.
=== Links associated with North Korean government ===
* [http://www.korea-dpr.com/library/201.pdf Kim Il Sung]: 10 Point programme for reunification of the country
* [http://www.korea-dpr.com/ korea-dpr.com] - Website officially associated with North Korea. (Maintained from a [[European]] server by the [[Korean Friendship Association]].)
* [http://www.kcckp.net/en/ Naenara] ("My country," in Korean) DPRK's Official Web Portal run by Korea Computer Company
* [http://www.kcna.co.jp The Korean Central News Agency, The DPRK's news service.] - Hosted on a Japanese webserver.
* [http://www.uriminzokkiri.com www.uriminzokkiri.com]
 
=== Web sites about North Korea ===
{{portalpar|Korea|Korea gyeongbokgung.jpg}}
* [http://www.unikorea.go.kr/en/index.jsp Ministry of unification (South Korea)]
* [http://www.britannica.com/nations/Korea,-North Encyclopaedia Britannica, North Korea - Country Page]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1131421.stm BBC News - ''Country Profile: North Korea'']
* [http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/kn.html CIA World Factbook - ''North Korea'']
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/05/asia_pac_unseen_north_korea/html/1.stm BBC News - ''In pictures: Unseen North Korea'']
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/korea/0,2759,331519,00.html Guardian Unlimited - ''Special Report: North and South Korea'']
* [http://www.simonbone.com/myohyang.html Happy Birthday, North Korea] - detailed account of travel to 3 sanctioned areas
* [http://uk.geocities.com/hkgalbert/kpmap.htm Korean Tourist Map]
* [http://www.nkzone.org/nkzone NKzone] blog about North Korea news
* [http://mapage.noos.fr/jeejee/north_korea.html North Korea Resources] - background news and analysis of North Korea
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Asia/North_Korea/ Open Directory Project - ''North Korea''] directory category
* [http://www.pyongyang-metro.com/ Pyongyang Metro System Unofficial Web Site - 1]
* [http://www.koryogroup.com Tours / Tourism page of North Korea, with links to other North Korea related sites]
* [http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/la-fg-chongjin4jul04,1,1445590.story?ctrack=1&cset=true Trading Ideals for Sustenance] Second part of Los Angeles Times expose on changing North Korean life (July 4, 2005)
* [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/kptoc.html US Library of Congress - ''Country Studies: North Korea''] - data as of June 1993
* [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/search.tkl?q=north+korea&search_crit=fulltext&search=Search&date1=Anytime&date2=Anytime&type=form Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding North Korea]
* [http://times.discovery.com/convergence/insidenorthkorea/video/video.html ''Children of a Secret State'']: Human rights of children in North Korea ([[Discovery Channel]])
* [http://www.voanews.com/english/north_korea_reporters_notebook.cfm ''North Korea: A Reporter's Notebook''] — Luis Ramirez ([[Voice of America]])
* [http://www.seoultrain.com ''Seoul Train''] PBS documentary on North Korean refugees, filmed in 2003 ([[Incite Productions]])
* [http://www.pyongyangsquare.com/ Pyongyang Square]
* [http://diplomacymonitor.com/stu/dm.nsf/issued?openform&cat=North_Korea Diplomacy Monitor - North Korea Nuclear Issue]
* [http://www.tema.ru/travel/choson-1/ Artemii Lebedev's photographs of North Korea with commentary in Russian] ([http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?t=82755 American version with English translation])
 
=== Web sites criticizing North Korea ===
* [http://www.korealiberator.org/ The Korea Liberator] - Blog focusing on human rights conditions in North Korea
* [http://times.hankooki.com/special/special_edition1_list.htm Another Korea] - Background stories on North Korea
* [http://www.soonoklee.org/freenk.cgi Soon Ok Lee project] - website calling for [[Christian]] solidarity with Korean refugees.
* [http://www.dailynk.com/english/index.php Daily NK] - North Korea focused daily online newspaper
* [http://www.chosunjournal.com/ ChosunJournal] - website focused on DPRK human rights
* [http://nkhumanrights.or.kr/NKHR_new/index_eng_new.htm Citizens' Alliance for North Korean Human Rights] - Witness accounts of refugees
* [http://www.geocities.com/china_e_lobby/NorthKorea.html North Korea e-lobby]
* [http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?t=82755 Military Photos]
 
=== Documentaries on North Korea ===
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/ Kim's Nuclear Gamble] - PBS ''Frontline'' Documentary (Video & Transcript)
* [http://www.seoultrain.com/ Seoul Train] Documentary on North Koreans Trying to escape via China 2004
* [http://www.taytv.com/2006/01/dan-rather-visits-north-korea.html The Hermit Kingdom] Dan Rather 60 Minutes 02/06
* [http://www.astateofmind.co.uk/ "a state of mind"] A documentary by the BBC following two young North Korean gymnasts training for the [[mass games]].
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6951629397402742053&q=north+korea+children+of+the+secret+state Children of the Secret State] Discovery Channel documentary about the children of North Korea.
{{East_Asia}}
{{Asia}}
 
[[وېشنيزه:Divided regions|کوريا, سهېلي]]
[[وېشنيزه:East Asian countries]]
[[وېشنيزه:سهېلي کوريا| ]]
 
[[ace:Korèa Barôh]]
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