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== تاريخ ==
{{main|History of sociology}}
[[دوتنه:People3.jpg|thumbبټنوک|rightښي|200px|[[Social interaction]]s and their consequences are the subject of sociology. (Image: [[Field Museum of Natural History]] in [[Chicago]].)]]
Sociology, in studying society, including economic, political and cultural systems, has origins in the [[common stock]] of human [[knowledge]] and [[philosophy]]. [[Social analysis]] has been carried out by scholars and [[philosophy|philosophers]] at least as early as the time of [[Plato]]. In the [[14th century]], [[Ibn Khaldun]], who is sometimes considered the "[[List of people known as father or mother of something|father of sociology]]",<ref>H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", ''Cooperation South Journal'' '''1'''.</ref><ref>Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", ''Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture'' '''12''' (3).</ref> in his ''[[Muqaddimah]]'', the introduction to a seven volume analysis of [[universal history]], advanced [[social philosophy]] in formulating theories of [[social cohesion]] and [[social conflict]]. (See [[Early Muslim sociology]].)
 
The word sociology was coined by French thinker [[Auguste Comte]] in 1838 from [[Latin]] ''socius'' (companion, associate) and [[greek language|Greek]] λóγος, ''lógos'' (word). Comte hoped to unify all studies of humankind - including history, psychology and economics. His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century; he believed all human life had passed through the same distinct historical stages (theology, metaphysics, [[positive science]]) and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology was to be the 'queen of positive sciences.'
 
[[دوتنه:Karl_Marx.jpg|thumbبټنوک|150px|leftکيڼ|[[Karl Marx]]]]
"Classical" theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include [[Karl Marx, [[Ferdinand Tönnies]], [[Émile Durkheim]], [[Vilfredo Pareto]], [[Georg Simmel]], and [[Max Weber]]. Like Comte, these figures did not consider themselves only "sociologists". Their works addressed [[religion]], [[education]], [[economics]], [[law]], [[psychology]], [[ethics]], [[philosophy]], and [[theology]], and their theories have been applied in a variety of academic disciplines. Their influence on sociology was foundational.
 
The discipline was taught by its own name for the first time at the [[University of Kansas]], [[Lawrence]] in 1890 by Frank Blackmar, under the course title ''Elements of Sociology'' (the oldest continuing sociology course in America). The ''Department of History and Sociology'' at the University of Kansas was established in 1891 [http://www.ku.edu/%7Esocdept/about/],[http://www.news.ku.edu/2005/June/June15/sociology.shtml], and the first full fledged independent university department of sociology was established in 1892 at the [[University of Chicago]] by [[Albion W. Small]], who in 1895 founded the [[American Journal of Sociology]] [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/home.html].
 
[[دوتنه:Max Weber 1917.jpg|thumbبټنوک|rightښي|[[Max Weber]]]]
The first European department of sociology was founded in 1895 at the [[University of Bordeaux]] by [[Émile Durkheim]], founder of ''[[Année Sociologique|L'Année Sociologique]]'' (1896). The first sociology department to be established in [[United Kingdom|the United Kingdom]] was at the [[London School of Economics|London School of Economics and Political Science]] (home of the British Journal of Sociology) [http://www.lse.ac.uk/serials/Bjs/] in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the [[Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich]] by [[Max Weber]] and in 1920 in [[Poland]] by [[Florian Znaniecki]].
 
[[ro:Sociologie]]
[[ru:Социология]]
[[sah:Социология]]
[[sc:Sotziologia]]
[[scn:Socioluggìa]]
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