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Among medical professionals, the preferred method to diagnose malaria and determine which species of ''Plasmodium'' is causing the infection is by examination of a [[blood film]] microscopically in a laboratory. Each species has distinctive physical characteristics that are apparent under a [[microscope]]. In ''P. falciparum'', only early [[trophozoite]]s and [[gametocyte]]s are seen in the peripheral blood. It is unusual to see mature trophozoites or [[wiktionary:schizont|schizonts]] in peripheral blood smears as these are usually sequestered in the tissues. The parasitised erythrocytes are not enlarged and it is common to see cells with more than one parasite within them (multiply parasitised erythrocytes). Occasionally, faint comma-shaped red dots are seen on the red cell surface called "Maurer's dots". The comma shaped dots can also appear as pear shaped blotches.
 
== پلازموډيم او انساني جينوم ==
== Plasmodium and the human genome ==
In the 50,000 years since ''Plasmodium'' first infected humans, these parasites have altered the human genome in a multitude of ways. [[Haldane]] (1949) suggested that [[Sickle-cell disease]] could offer some protection to malaria. This hypothesis has since been confirmed and has been extended to [[hemoglobin C]] and [[hemoglobin E]], abnormalities in [[ankyrin]] and [[spectrin]], ([[ovalocytosis]] , [[elliptocytosis]]), in [[glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency]] and [[pyruvate kinase deficiency]], loss of the Gerbich antigen ([[glycophorin C]]) and the [[Duffy antigen]] on the [[erythrocytes]], [[thalassemia]]s and variations in the [[major histocompatibility antigen]] classes 1 and 2 and [[CD32]] and [[CD36]].
 
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