لېډ

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Lead,  82Pb
A small gray metal cube surrounded by three gray metal nuggets in front of a light gray background
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈlɛd/ (LED)
Appearancemetallic gray
Lead په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Sn

Pb

Fl
thalliumleadbismuth
اټومي شمیره (Z)82
گروپ, پیریودgroup 14 (carbon group), period 6
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى600.61 K ​(327.46 °C, ​621.43 °F)
يشنا ټکی2022 K ​(1749 °C, ​3180 °F)
Density near r.t.11.34 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.10.66 g/cm3
Heat of fusion4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization179.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.650 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 978 1088 1229 1412 1660 2027
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.87 (+2)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 715.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1450.5 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3081.5 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 175 pm
Covalent radius146±5 pm
Van der Waals radius202 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for lead
Speed of sound thin rod1190 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)
Thermal expansion28.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه35.3 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity208 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−23.0×10−6 cm3/mol (at 298 K)[۲]
Young's modulus16 GPa
Shear modulus5.6 GPa
Bulk modulus46 GPa
Poisson ratio0.44
Mohs hardness1.5
Brinell hardness38–50 MPa
CAS Number7439-92-1
History
Discoveryin the Middle East (7000 BCE)
Main isotopes of lead
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
204Pb 1.4% stable
206Pb 24.1% stable
207Pb 22.1% stable
208Pb 52.4% stable
Isotopic abundances vary greatly by sample
| references | in Wikidata

لېډ (په انگرېزي: Lead) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pb سمبول او ۸۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija او نور 2016.
  2. Weast، Astle او Beyer 1983، ص. E110.

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