سېريوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Cerium,  58Ce
Cerium2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈsɪəriəm/
Appearancesilvery white
Cerium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Ce

Th
lanthanumceriumpraseodymium
اټومي شمیره (Z)58
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2[۲]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1068 K ​(795 °C, ​1463 °F)
يشنا ټکی3716 K ​(3443 °C, ​6229 °F)
Density near r.t.6.770 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.6.55 g/cm3
Heat of fusion5.46 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization398 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.94 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1992 2194 2442 2754 3159 3705
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.12
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 534.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1949 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 181.8 pm
Covalent radius204±9 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cerium

β-Ce
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for cerium

γ-Ce
Speed of sound thin rod2100 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionγ, poly: 6.3 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه11.3 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityβ, poly: 828 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)(β) +2450.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[۴]
Young's modulusγ form: 33.6 GPa
Shear modulusγ form: 13.5 GPa
Bulk modulusγ form: 21.5 GPa
Poisson ratioγ form: 0.24
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness210–470 MPa
Brinell hardness186–412 MPa
CAS Number7440-45-1
History
Namingafter dwarf planet Ceres, itself named after Roman deity of agriculture Ceres
DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger (1803)
First isolationCarl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Main isotopes of cerium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
134Ce syn 3.16 d ε 134La
136Ce 0.186% stable
138Ce 0.251% stable
139Ce syn 137.640 d ε 139La
140Ce 88.449% stable
141Ce syn 32.501 d β 141Pr
142Ce 11.114% stable
143Ce syn 33.039 d β 143Pr
144Ce syn 284.893 d β 144Pr
| references | in Wikidata

سېريوم (په انگرېزي: Cerium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ce سمبول او ۵۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Ground levels and ionization energies for the neutral atoms, NIST
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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